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Foundational Literacy and Numeracy

Updated: Dec 28, 2023



The ability to read with meaning and perform basic math calculations by the 3rd grade is known as Foundation Literacy and Numeracy. The National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 accords the highest priority to achieving FLN among all children by 2025. The mission is known as NIPUN Bharat.

According to ASER 2018, 72.8 percent of pupils are unable to read a simple class 2-level text, and 71.9 percent are unable to do a basic subtraction problem by the third grade.


The new institute called PARAKH, is an independent learning National Assessment Center is like the single biggest reform. The idea of a lower stakes board exam, less focused on rote, more multi-disciplinary, holistic is huge. It will have cascading effects through not just secondary school but back down into primary school.


In 2030, today's primary school pupils will enter India's workforce, and NIPUN Bharat's successful implementation has the potential to transform India into an economic powerhouse. Our children's futures, as well as India's aim to maximize its demographic dividend, are dependent on whether or not children can read with understanding by the end of third grade.


Teachers will need to be strengthened with required resources to achieve the FLN Mission. Print-rich textbooks, workbooks and storybooks for children will have to be made available. The aim is to build a national understanding of goals and targets of the mission. The Experience, Language, Pictures and Symbols (ELPS) Approach would be used for the same.


Importance of FLN Mission:


FLN skills allow pupils to learn more effectively in higher grades and to develop 21st-century abilities such as problem-solving and critical thinking. Those who do not master these basic literacy and numeracy skills will find it difficult to catch up later in life and may drop out.


Objectives of FLN Mission:

  • Making learners competent in doing meaningful reading and writing by the time they enter grade 3.

  • Developing the basic understanding and competencies related to numeracy and its related concepts among young learners till grade 2.

  • Developing skills among the learners to amalgamate their outside school experiences in their classroom learning to attain foundational literacy and numeracy in a better way.


Curricular Expectations:

  • Experiential Learning Activities and the gamification approach should be undertaken to maintain the child’s interest in learning.

  • Locally developed resources as per the National Guidelines should be used for teaching.

  • Formative and Adaptive assessments should be used.

  • Reading with comprehension, Writing with understanding and Speaking with coherent thoughts.

  • Numeracy, Number Sense and Spatial Learning would be helpful for the development of Mathematical Understanding.

  • Numeracy and Mathematical Understanding: Pre – number concepts, Spatial Understanding of space, size and position, Number Sense and Mathematical Vocabulary.

Implementation of Universal FLN Mission:

  • The FLN Mission would be on the highest priority of the Department of Education.

  • A team would be set up by MHRD to track and monitor the progress of the FLN Mission of each state.

  • The respective States / Union Territories will draft the plan.

  • By 2025, the FLN Mission would be implemented in the entire nation.


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