Pedagogy is the theory and practice of learning, and how this process influences, and is influenced by, the social, political and psychological development of learners. Teachers should consider the most effective means of content delivery based on student needs. Do students need more lecture or individual work time? How do the students in the classroom learn best? These pedagogical questions are at the centre of approaching learning for students. There are many moving parts to pedagogy that include teaching styles, feedback, and assessment.
Teacher-centered learning focuses on the teacher giving lectures and sharing content through direct instruction. Teacher-centered assessments are cut and dry meant for students to show they know the knowledge that has been shared with them at the end of a unit. High-tech learning is where teachers share their knowledge and teach it to students in a high-tech way.
Student-centered learning encourages the student to be an active participant in their own learning process. While the teacher still delivers content, they take on more of a coaching or mentoring role to help students learn. Student-centered assessments are given more frequently to assess knowledge and tend to be more objective.
High-tech and low-tech approaches to teaching are different. High-tech includes technology such as Google suite, personal devices, web quests, and apps. Low-tech is more paper-based, like worksheets and hands-on projects.
Teachers can use a combination of different pedagogical approaches to reach the variety of students within the classroom. The ultimate way to help students learn is to use all of these approaches.
Effective pedagogy can lead to academic achievement, social and emotional development, acquisition of technical skills, and a general ability to contribute to society. Some strategies have been shown to be more effective than others in a broadly-applicable way. These include the strong grasp of pedagogical approaches specific to the subject matter and age of the learners. They also include appropriate use of whole-class, small group, and pair work; meaningful incorporation of teaching and learning materials in addition to the textbook.
Pedagogy in education concentrates on the different learning styles of students. No two students are exactly the same, and so finding out how students learn helps the teacher create lessons that help each student learn in the way they learn best. There are several different theories as to how people learn. The first is Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences, which was developed by Howard Gardner in 1983. It states that there are 8 ways in which people learn: visual-spatial, linguistic-Verbal, interpersonal, logical-mathematic, musical, and naturalistic.
National examinations, curriculum standards, and other education system policies influence teacher pedagogy. For example, national exams that primarily test factual knowledge, rather than comprehension or analysis, discourage teachers from using pedagogical skills that develop higher-order critical thinking skills. Education planners must also explore ways to align other policies and practices throughout the system.
The more students learn, the greater the enjoyment of the processes and the more open to self-learning they become in the future. It makes the relationship between the teacher and learner that much closer, as they work together to determine the best learning experience. Delivering learning programmes in ways that learners learn best makes students more likely to be engaged and have greater propensities to retain more.
Teachers who have low expectations of their students make less of an effort to help them learn, in addition to discouraging them in other subtle ways, often achieve lower academic performance. When teachers have a positive attitude towards their students, they are more socially responsive and attentive, they more often tailor their instruction to particular student needs, and they're more successful at drawing on students' experiences.
Teachers need specific preparation in how to make contextual adaptations to their teaching approaches through both pre-service and in-service training. In mixed-level classrooms, teachers need to have a deep understanding of students' different ability levels in order to alter their instruction and activities to meet the needs of each student. What constitutes effective pedagogy is often context-dependent; therefore teachers must receive specific preparation.
In under-resourced classrooms, teachers need to be especially creative about how to use locally-available materials, and how to connect lessons to observations of the social and natural environment. Many excellent teachers set up routines for group-work, peer review, distributing papers, etc., to help reduce chaos and increase instructional time. There are also specific techniques for effective use of questions and encouraging discussions in large classrooms.
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